Check new design of our homepage! Through this summary, we discuss Diamond's viewpoint of societal development that essentially pivots on geographic advantage. Penlighten Staff Jared Diamond is a celebrated American Scientist who started his scientific journey in the field of physiology. He is a professor of Geography at the University of California, Los Angeles and branched out in the fields of evolutionary biology and biogeography, which has won him equal acclaim.
Yali asked, using the local term " cargo " for inventions and manufactured goods, "Why is it that you white people developed so much cargo and brought it to New Guinea, but we black people had little cargo of our own? Still others, he says, "have been decimated, subjugated, and in some cases even exterminated by European colonialists.
Diamond argues geographic, climatic and environmental characteristics which favored early development of stable agricultural societies ultimately led to immunity to diseases endemic in agricultural animals and the development of powerful, organized states capable of dominating others.
Outline of theory[ edit ] Diamond argues that Eurasian civilization is not so much a product of ingenuity, but of opportunity and necessity. That is, civilization is not created out of superior intelligence, but is the result of a chain of developments, each made possible by certain preconditions.
The first step towards civilization is the move from nomadic hunter-gatherer to rooted agrarian society. Several conditions are necessary for this transition to occur: Control of crops and livestock leads to food surpluses.
Surpluses free people to specialize in activities other than sustenance and support population growth. The combination of specialization and population growth leads to the accumulation of social and technologic innovations which build on each other.
Large societies develop ruling classes and supporting bureaucracieswhich in turn lead to the organization of nation-states and empires. In particular, Eurasia has barleytwo varieties of wheat, and three protein-rich pulses for food; flax for textiles; and goats, sheep, and cattle.
Eurasian grains were richer in protein, easier to sow, and easier to store than American maize or tropical bananas. As early Western Asian civilizations began to trade, they found additional useful animals in adjacent territories, most notably horses and donkeys for use in transport.
Australia and North America suffered from a lack of useful animals due to extinctionprobably by human hunting, shortly after the end of the Pleistocenewhilst the only domesticated animals in New Guinea came from the East Asian mainland during the Austronesian settlement some 4,—5, years ago.
Sub-Saharan biological relatives of the horse including zebras and onagers proved untameable; and although African elephants can be tamed, it is very difficult to breed them in captivity;   Diamond describes the small number of domesticated species 14 out of "candidates" as an instance of the Anna Karenina principle: He also makes the intriguing argument that all large mammals that could be domesticated, have been.
Large domestic animals such as horses and camels offered the considerable military and economic advantages of mobile transport. Its large area provided it with more plant and animal species suitable for domestication, and allowed its people to exchange both innovations and diseases.
Its east-west orientation allowed breeds domesticated in one part of the continent to be used elsewhere through similarities in climate and the cycle of seasons. The Americas had difficulty adapting crops domesticated at one latitude for use at other latitudes and, in North America, adapting crops from one side of the Rocky Mountains to the other.
Similarly, Africa was fragmented by its extreme variations in climate from north to south: The rise of nonfarming specialists such as craftsmen and scribes accelerated economic growth and technological progress.
Smallpoxmeaslesand influenza were the result of close proximity between dense populations of animals and humans. Natural selection forced Eurasians to develop immunity to a wide range of pathogens.In Guns, Germs, and Steel, anthropologist Jared Diamond explains why some societies are more materially successful than others.
He attributes societal success to geography, immunity to germs, food. Jared Diamond’s 30 years of research are condensed into one brilliant title, Guns, Germs, and Steel, which will redefine your current knowledge of society.
Guns, Germs, and Steel is an extremely informative book that will make you question a lot of topics related to the development of society. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies is a work of historiography by Jared webkandii.com book chronicles history from the beginning of humankind, attempting to explain why certain societies have survived and thrive, while so many others have perished.
This brief overview of Guns, Germs, and Steel tells you what you need to know—before or after you read Jared Diamond’s book.
Crafted and edited with care, Worth Books set the standard for quality and give you the tools you need to be a well-informed reader/5(11). Summary and Analysis of Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies: Based on the Book by Jared Diamond (Smart Summaries)5/5(1).
Guns, Germs, and Steel study guide contains a biography of Jared Diamond, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis of Huck Finn. Study Guides Q & A.