Ancient Greek Philosophy We can start with the Greeks, and this means starting with Homer, a body of texts transmitted first orally and then written down in the seventh century BCE. So what does the relation between morality and religion look like in Homer? The first thing to say is that the gods and goddesses of the Homeric poems behave remarkably like the noble humans described in the same poems, even though the humans are mortal and the gods and goddesses immortal.
This is what lies at the bottom of myth. A myth is a kindly hallucination that fills up the gaps left by our understanding, permitting humans to act with assurance and ease.
The hunter, facing a beast at bay, needs to believe that his arrow is directed after it leaves his hand; and the farmer is comforted by the belief that there are powers that preside over the seed that he has planted in the earth.
Somewhat in the same way, humans need assurance in the face of death, which has never threatened the nonreflective animal as it does humans. The belief in an afterlife neutralizes doubt and fear and provides humans with the sense of self-mastery.
In these ways, provident nature preserves its favorite, humans, making it possible for them to benefit by intelligence without being destroyed by it.
The mana, which anthropologists claim is the basis of the religious response, Bergson took to be an expression of purposive activity. In magical practices, humans suppose that they employ this mysterious power themselves; in religious acts, they seek the cooperation of unseen beings who, they believe, have even greater The entire section is words.Ethics.
The field of ethics (or moral philosophy) involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior. Philosophers today usually divide ethical theories into three general subject areas: metaethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics.
(1) Ethically, the issue vitally affects the meaning of most of our fundamental moral terms and ideas. Responsibility, merit, duty, remorse, justice, and the like, will have a totally different significance for one who believes that all man's acts are in the last resort completely determined by.
Religion. Please help support the mission of New Advent and get the full contents of this website as an instant download. Includes the Catholic Encyclopedia, Church. Religion and Morality First published Wed Sep 27, ; substantive revision Tue Dec 2, From the beginning of the Abrahamic faiths and of Greek philosophy, religion .
The share of countries with a high or very high level of social hostilities involving religion reached a six-year peak in , according to a new study by the Pew Research Center. A third (33%) of the countries and territories included in the study had high religious hostilities in , up from 29% in and 20% as of mid Nietzsche's moral philosophy is primarily critical in orientation: he attacks morality both for its commitment to untenable descriptive (metaphysical and empirical) claims about human agency, as well as for the deleterious impact of its distinctive norms and values on the flourishing of the highest types of human beings (Nietzsche's “higher men”).