A study of biology includes the study of the chemical basis of living organisms, DNA. Other related sciences include microbiology and organic chemistry. The word science comes from a Latin word scientica, which means knowledge, or information. Science is a process of systematically gathering detailed information and gaining exact knowledge.
Short half-life corresponds to high reactivity. The one nanosecond half-life of the hydroxyl radical indicates that it is so reactive that it reacts with the first molecule it bumps into. Ascorbate forms H2O2 on autoxidation direct combination with oxygen. Lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids exposed to oxygen leads to rancidity in foods.
In living animal cells peroxidized membranes lose their permeability, becoming rigid, reactive and nonfunctional. Lipid peroxidation can produce singlet oxygen, hydroperoxides and lipid epoxides. MDA is a major metabolite of arachidonic acid Aldehyde-bridge formation leads to the protein-protein cross-linking associated with lipofuscin formation.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids are more vulnerable to free radical oxidation than any other macromolecules in the body — and the sensitivity to free radical damage increases exponentially with the number of double bonds.
Animal cells contain three important enzymes to deal with the superoxide and hydrogen peroxide: A dismutase is an enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of two identical molecules to Ap biology essay questions mitosis meiosis molecules in different oxidative states.
In the absense of SOD, two superoxide ions can spontaneously dismutate to produce hydrogen peroxide and singlet oxygen. SOD catalyzes a reaction between two superoxide ions to produce hydrogen peroxide and triplet oxygen. CAT is present in membrane-limited organelles known as peroxisomes.
Glutathione is a tripeptide composed of the amino acids cysteine, glycine and glutamic acid. Glutathione is the major antioxidant in the non-lipid portion of cells most of the cytoplasm.
Reduced glutathione hydrogen donation can neutralize a hydroxyl radical: The elimination of hydrogen peroxide by glutathione can be written as the reaction: The liver, in particular, is very high in SOD. Cellular concentration of SOD relative to metabolic activity is a very good lifespan predictor of animal species.
Most mammals experience a lifetime energy expenditure ofcalories per gram, but humans have an amazingcalories per gram. Humans have the highest levels of SOD — relative to metabolic rate — of all species studied.
Oxidative damage to DNA is ten times greater in rats than in humans. Superoxide dismutase without glutathione peroxidase or catalase CAT to remove hydrogen peroxide is of little value. Insects lack glutathione peroxidase, but experiments have been performed on fruit flies made transgenic by having extra genes for SOD, CAT or both.
Radiation produces the hydroxyl radical, but most of the oxygen free radicals are byproducts of cell metabolism — particularly in the mitochondria, the lysosomes and the peroxisomes. One of the reasons these organelles are surrounded by membranes may be to protect the cell from the free-radicals they generate.
DNA may be sequestered in the nucleus, in part, as additional protection against free radicals.
Nonetheless, free radicals contribute to DNA damage and mutation. In addition to enzymes, the animal cell uses many other chemicals to protect against oxygen free-radicals.
Melatonina hormone produced by the pineal gland in decreasing quantities with aging, efficiently crosses membranes including the nucleus and is effective against hydroxyl radicals.
Uric acid also protects against free-radical catalysis by binding iron. Humans have higher levels of uric acid than monkeys and other mammals because humans lack the enzyme uricase. But birds typically have twice the plasma uric acid concentration as humans.
Anti-oxidants are most valuable for animals that are cancer-prone, or subjected to radiation or chemical toxins. There are evidently homeostatic mechanisms in cells that govern the amount of allowable anti-oxidant activity. For more on anti-oxidants and anti-oxidant enzymes, see my essay General Anti-Oxidant Actions.
Most animal cells contain between a few hundred and a few thousand mitochondria. The most mitochondria are found in the cells that are most metabolically active: A mitochondrion has two membranes.
It is in the matrix that the Krebs citric acid cycle occurs. There can be tens of thousands of respiratory chain and associated ATP synthase molecules embedded in the inner membrane of a mitochondrion, especially in metabolically active cells that have their inner membranes most highly folded into cristae that increase surface area.
The respiratory chain "electron transport chain" attached to the inner wall of the inner membrane is composed of 4 protein complexes. The energy released by the oxidations in the respiratory chain are used to pump protons outside the inner mitochondrial membrane.International Scholars Tuition School International Scholars Tuition School (IST) tutors are dedicated to teaching the most comprehensive lessons for the 11+ Common Entrance Exams (CEE), UKiset, Verbal Reasoning, Non-Verbal Reasoning, 13+ Common Entrance Exams (CEE), 13+ Common Academic Scholarship Exams (CASE), and Eton College King’s Scholarship Exams, to Hong Kong students who .
Students with a score of 4 or 5 on the AP Biology test may use their AP credit to meet the general education requirement in the Biological Sciences if the first three quarters of the Advanced Biology sequence are completed. Buy Essay Papers Here - ap biology essay mitosis meiosis To increase your understanding of mitosis, complete the Mitosis and Cytokinesis assignment by clicking on the icon to the left.
To complete this activity, you will answer the questions related to the process of cell division. AP Biology Essay Questions The following is a comprehensive list of essay questions that have been asked on past AP exams. The questions are organized according to units.
The lab-based questions have been removed. Unit 1 (Basic Chemistry and Water) 1. The unique properties (characteristics) of water make life possible on Earth.
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