Learning Principles Theory and Research-based Principles of Learning The following list presents the basic principles that underlie effective learning.
Compared to traditional learning models, sufficient time, attention, and help are afforded to each student. This paper investigates the mastery learning model and changes that have taken place in its use as an effective teaching strategy.
This paper shows that by college typewriting a mastery approach mastery learning as a teaching strategy, students achieve higher learning and better academic performance. Mastery Learning, Learning, Teaching Strategy, Personalized System of Instruction Introduction Allowing students the opportunity to achieve mastery of content at different time intervals has proven to be an effective method of increasing student learning.
This paper will investigate the mastery learning model and changes that have taken place in its use as an effective teaching strategy. By definition, mastery learning is a method of instruction where the focus is on the role of feedback in learning.
Thus, through one or more trials, students have to achieve a specified level of content knowledge prior to progression on to a next unit of instruction.
Background Information Mastery learning though strongly influenced by the development of instructional technology is not, however, a new concept Bloom, ; Wentling, Some principles of mastery learning originated with Aristotle and other ancient Greek philosophers.
Furthermore, the concept that most students can learn everything that is being taught, if given sufficient time, goes back into the previous century Block, ; Bloom, Mastery learning was first introduced into the American educational system over seventy years ago. However, during the s, only a few schools in America were using mastery learning.
This plan was known as the Winnetka Plan, in which "primarily self-instructional practice materials were used, although the teacher occasionally tutored individuals or small groups" p.
A further attempt was made in by Morrison in which "a variety of correctives were used -- for example, re-teaching, tutoring, restructuring the original learning activities, and redirecting student study habits" p.
Block stated that Morrison's method was successful in the s. However, because of a lack of technology, Morrison's idea of mastery learning failed to be used by teachers across the nation. In the early s the idea of mastery learning was revived in the form of programmed instruction.
Programmed instruction derived initially from work conducted by B. Skinner was further developed by other behaviorists. This program was similar to mastery learning in the sense that the focus was on the role of feedback in learning and on individualized learning.
Also, like the original mastery learning model, this method of instruction allowed students to move at their own pace and receive instant feedback on their current level of mastery. Founders of Mastery Learning Both Bloom and Carroll are credited with formulating the idea of mastery learning, though many of its elements were strongly influenced by Washburn and Morrison in the s and behaviorists in the s.
As cited in CarrollBloom came up with an important component of instruction which is time. According to Carroll, the differences in aptitude among students are due to the amount of time spent in learning the material. According to Davis and SorrellCarroll indicated that if the student will make the effort to learn a task by allowing himself or herself the time that the student requires for individual learning then he or she will succeed.
Therefore, in a given test, the only thing that varies is student performance. In the late s, Bloom's "Learning for Mastery" focused attention on the philosophy of mastery learning. Bloom interpreted Carroll's ideas and philosophy of learning in terms of mastery learning.
He stated that the mastery learning proponent believes that intelligence and aptitude are not the best indicators of potential achievement. These characteristics were seen as identifiable and alterable by Bloom.
Thus, as students master the prerequisite skills for each new unit the need for corrective instruction will progressively reduce on each succeeding unit Bloom, Bloom is known as the individual recognized for the theoretical formulation of the mastery model.
He suggested that learning outcomes in most all subject areas can be enhanced through the mastery learning method. Over time, the model of mastery learning, developed by Bloom, began to take on a number of different variables./ / College Typewriting: A Mastery Approach / James E. Labarre, William Mitchell, K.
Mach / / Essentials of Computer Data Processing / Edward L. Essick. Note: Citations are based on reference standards. However, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study.
The specific requirements or preferences of your reviewing publisher, classroom teacher, institution or organization should be applied. Buy College Typewriting, a mastery approach by James E LaBarre (ISBN: ) from Amazon's Book Store.
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Note: Citations are based on reference standards. However, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study.
The specific requirements or preferences of your reviewing publisher, classroom teacher, institution or organization should be applied. The aims of a college course in typewriting should be thought of in terms of the aims of higher edu- cation in general. automatization approach. When a subject matter approach is used, skill development need not suffer, for col- mastery of the reaches and typewrit- ing styles is assured.
The components that one midwest community college uses in its remedial English composition program reflect applications of behavioral theory and include an explicit course goal; twelve small, sequential, cumulative instructional steps; explicitly stated behavioral objectives (based on Bloom's.