Awarded his doctorate inhe was one of the first historians professionally trained in the United States rather than Europe.
Want to start a startup? Get funded by Y Combinator. July This essay is derived from a talk at Oscon A few months ago I finished a new bookand in reviews I keep noticing words like "provocative'' and "controversial.
I was trying to make it efficient. I didn't want to waste people's time telling them things they already knew.
It's more efficient just to give them the diffs. But I suppose that's bound to yield an alarming book. Edisons There's no controversy about which idea is most controversial: I didn't say in the book that variation in wealth was in itself a good thing.
I said in some situations it might be a sign of good things. A throbbing headache is not a good thing, but it can be a sign of a good thing-- for example, that you're recovering consciousness after being hit on the head.
Variation in wealth can be a sign of variation in productivity. In a society of one, they're identical. And that is almost certainly a good thing: It's probably because you have no Thomas Edisons. In a low-tech society you don't see much variation in productivity. If you have a tribe of nomads collecting sticks for a fire, how much more productive is the best stick gatherer going to be than the worst?
A factor of two? Whereas when you hand people a complex tool like a computer, the variation in what they can do with it is enormous. That's not a new idea.
Fred Brooks wrote about it inand the study he quoted was published in But I think he underestimated the variation between programmers. He wrote about productivity in lines of code: But what if the problem isn't given?
In programming, as in many fields, the hard part isn't solving problems, but deciding what problems to solve. Imagination is hard to measure, but in practice it dominates the kind of productivity that's measured in lines of code.
Productivity varies in any field, but there are few in which it varies so much. The variation between programmers is so great that it becomes a difference in kind. I don't think this is something intrinsic to programming, though.
In every field, technology magnifies differences in productivity.
I think what's happening in programming is just that we have a lot of technological leverage. But in every field the lever is getting longer, so the variation we see is something that more and more fields will see as time goes on.Frederick Jackson Turner could all be attributed to the influence of the frontier.
Turner's essay reached triumphalist heights in his belief that the promotion of individualistic democracy was. Our colors represent a long history and we wear them with pride and respect.
Our colors pay homage to African Americans of the 9th and 10th Cavalry who sacrificed their lives so that our country could be what it is today.. Read more. The Frontier Thesis or Turner Thesis, is the argument advanced by historian Frederick Jackson Turner in that American democracy was formed by the American frontier.
He stressed the process—the moving frontier line—and the impact it had on pioneers going through the process.
Despite shortcomings and weaknesses in Turner’s essay, the frontier thesis has a lasting appeal and the frontier idea keeps turning up in new forms, for example in everything from western movies, commercials and politics.
The frontier has become an important part of American consciousness. Edited version by James Cook The Star Thrower from The Unexpected Universe, by Loren Eiseley PART II I adjusted the dark lens of my glasses and, thus disguised, I paced slowly past the starfish gatherers, past the shell.
San Francisco—The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) launched a virtual reality (VR) experience on its website today that teaches people how to spot and understand the surveillance technologies police are increasingly using to spy on communities.