After completing his graduate studies, he spent a postdoctoral fellowship at Burroughs Wellcome Co.
May 05, ; Accepted: June 16, ; Published: In recent years, due to their unique properties like specificity, low toxicity and relative ease of preparation, these surface-active biomolecules have attracted wide interest.
Due to their unique functional Microemulsion thesisbiosurfactants were used in several industries including organic chemicals, petroleum, petrochemicals, mining, metallurgy mainly bioleachingagrochemicals, fertilizers, foods, beverages, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and many others. They can Microemulsion thesis used as emulsifiers as well as demulsifiers, wetting agents, foaming agents, spreading agents, functional food ingredients and detergents.
The interfacial surface tension reducing ability of biosurfactants made them to play important role in oil recovery and bioremediation of heavy crude oil Volkering et al.
The three major functions played by biosurfactants including Rosenberg and Ron, They were used to increase the surface area of hydrophobic substrates.
They also regulate the attachment and removal of microorganisms from the surfaces. Biosurfactants possess both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions causing them to aggregate at interfaces between fluids with different polarities such as hydrocarbons and water Banat, ; Karanth et al.
They also found to be enhancing the nutrient transport across membranes and affect in various host-microbe interactions. Microemulsion thesis compared to chemical or synthetic surfactants, biosurfactants gained several advantages including their biodegradability, biocompatability and digestibility.
The biosurfactants can be used in environmental cleanup by biodegradation and detoxification of industrial effluents and in bioremediation of contaminated soil. Their specificity and availability of raw materials also made them most preferred surfactants Olivera et al.
The unique and distinct properties of biosurfactants when compared to their chemically synthesized counterparts and broad substrate availability made them suitable for commercial applications.
The distinctive features of microbial surfactants are related to their surface activity, tolerance to pH, temperature and ionic strength, biodegradability, low toxicity, emulsifying and demulsifying ability and antimicrobial activity Chakrabarti, The major distinctive features of each property of biosurfactant are discussed below.
Surface and interface activity: Surfactant helps in reducing surface tension and the interfacial tension. Surfactin produced by B.
The rhamnolipids produced by P. In general, biosurfactants are more effective and efficient and their Critical Micelle Concentration CMC is about several times lower than chemical surfactants, i.
Temperature and pH tolerance: The biosurfactant production from extremophiles has gained attention in last decades for their considered commercial interest. Most of the biosurfactants and their surface activity are resistant towards environmental factors such as temperature and pH.
Since, industrial processes involve exposure to extremes of temperature, pH and pressure, it is necessary to isolate novel microbial products that able to function under these conditions Cameotra and Makkar, Microbial derived compounds can be easily degraded when compared to synthetic surfactants Mohan et al.
The increasing environmental concern forces us to search for alternative products such as biosurfactants Cameotra and Makkar, Synthetic chemical surfactants impose environmental problems and hence, biodegradable biosurfactants from marine microorganisms were concerned for the biosorption of poorly soluble polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, phenanthrene contaminated in aquatic surfaces Olivera et al.
Although, very few literatures were available regarding the toxicity of biosurfactants, they are generally considered low or non-toxic products and are appropriate for pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food uses.
The low toxicity profile of biosurfactant, sophorolipids from Candida bombicola made them useful in food industries Cavalero and Cooper, Emulsion forming and emulsion breaking: Biosurfactants may act as emulsifiers or de-emulsifiers.
An emulsion can be described as a heterogeneous system, consisting of one immiscible liquid dispersed in another in the form of droplets, whose diameter in general exceeds 0. Emulsions are generally two types: They possess a minimal stability which may be stabilized by additives such as biosurfactants and can be maintained as stable emulsions for months to years Velikonja and Kosaric, Liposan is a water-soluble emulsifier synthesized by Candida lipolytica which have been used to emulsify edible oils by coating droplets of oil, thus forming stable emulsions.
The first step on biofilm establishment is bacterial adherence over the surface was affected by various factors including type of microorganism, hydrophobicity and electrical charges of surface, environmental conditions and ability of microorganisms to produce extracellular polymers that help cells to anchor to surfaces Zottola, The biosurfactants can be used in altering the hydrophobicity of the surface which in turn affects the adhesion of microbes over the surface.
A surfactant from Streptococcus thermophilus slows down the colonization of other thermophilic strains of Streptococcus over the steel which are responsible for fouling. Similarly, a biosurfactant from Pseudomonas fluorescens inhibited the attachment of Listeria monocytogenes onto steel surface Chakrabarti, The chemically synthesized surfactants are usually classified according to their polarity, whereas, biosurfactants are generally categorized by their microbial origin and chemical composition as following.
They are carbohydrates linked to long-chain aliphatic acids or hydroxyaliphatic acids by an ester group. Biosurfactants are majorly glycolipids.RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT M. PHARM THESIS Pharmacology Sr. No. Project title Name of Student Name of Guide 1 Effectiveness of Boerhaaviadiffusa and Punicagranatum in experimental prostatic hyperplasia in rats.
Curcumin is a constituent (up to ∼5%) of the traditional medicine known as turmeric. Interest in the therapeutic use of turmeric and the relative ease of isolation of curcuminoids has led to their extensive investigation.
Curcumin has recently been classified as both a PAINS (pan-assay interference compounds) and an IMPS (invalid metabolic panaceas) candidate.
medium-chain alcohols or viscous polymeric co-surfactants. Recently, microemulsion-base “green solvents” were formulated with lecithin and linker molecules. The main objective of this dissertation was to test this concept of linker-based lecithin microemulsions in transdermal delivery.
Full text This filter allows results reduction according to immediate full text access possibilities. YES marks the data of documents with public and further obstructions free access to the full texts.
NO value appears with data whose full texts access requires special claim, . The electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO 2) is an attractive option to efficiently bind electrical energy from renewable resources in artificial carbon fuels and webkandii.com strategy is considered as crucial part in closing the anthropogenic carbon cycle.
In particular, the electrosynthetic production of C1 species such as carbon monoxide (CO) would radiate immense power, since. the thesis title of “Development of Microemulsion for Transdermal Drug Delivery of Ketoprofen” submitted by Miss Narumon Worachun as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Pharmacy in Pharmaceutical Sciences.