Picasso's Blue Period Picasso's Blue Period —characterized by sombre paintings rendered in shades of blue and blue-green, only occasionally warmed by other colours, began either in Spain in earlyor in Paris in the second half of the year. In his austere use of colour and sometimes doleful subject matter — prostitutes and beggars are frequent subjects — Picasso was influenced by a trip through Spain and by the suicide of his friend Carlos Casagemas. Starting in autumn of he painted several posthumous portraits of Casagemas, culminating in the gloomy allegorical painting La Vienow in the Cleveland Museum of Art. Blindness is a recurrent theme in Picasso's works of this period, also represented in The Blindman's Mealthe Metropolitan Museum of Art and in the portrait of Celestina
SHARE Although studying creativity is considered a legitimate scientific discipline nowadays, it is still a very young one.
In the early s, a psychologist named J. Guilford was one of the first academic researchers who dared to conduct a study of creativity. He challenged research subjects to connect all nine dots using just four straight lines without lifting their pencils from the page. Today many people are familiar with this puzzle and its solution.
In the s, however, very few were even aware of its existence, even though it had been around for almost a century. If you have tried solving this puzzle, you can confirm that your first attempts usually involve sketching lines inside the imaginary square.
The correct solution, however, requires you to draw lines that extend beyond the area defined by the dots. Only 20 percent managed to break out of the illusory confinement and continue their lines in the white space surrounding the dots.
The symmetry, the beautiful simplicity of the solution, and the fact that 80 percent of the participants were effectively blinded by the boundaries of the square led Guilford and the readers of his books to leap to the sweeping conclusion that creativity requires you to go outside the box.
The idea went viral via s-era media and word of mouth, of course. Overnight, it seemed that creativity gurus everywhere were teaching managers how to think outside the box. Management consultants in the s and s even used this puzzle when making sales pitches to prospective clients.
Because the solution is, in hindsight, deceptively simple, clients tended to admit they should have thought of it themselves. Or so their consultants would have them believe. There seemed to be no end to the insights that could be offered under the banner of thinking outside the box. Speakers, trainers, training program developers, organizational consultants, and university professors all had much to say about the vast benefits of outside-the-box thinking.
It was an appealing and apparently convincing message. Indeed, the concept enjoyed such strong popularity and intuitive appeal that no one bothered to check the facts. No one, that is, before two different research teams —Clarke Burnham with Kenneth Davis, and Joseph Alba with Robert Weisberg—ran another experiment using the same puzzle but a different research procedure.
Both teams followed the same protocol of dividing participants into two groups. The second group was told that the solution required the lines to be drawn outside the imaginary box bordering the dot array.
Would you like to guess the percentage of the participants in the second group who solved the puzzle correctly? Most people assume that 60 percent to 90 percent of the group given the clue would solve the puzzle easily.
In fact, only a meager 25 percent did. In other words, the difference could easily be due to what statisticians call sampling error. Solving this problem requires people to literally think outside the box.
That is, direct and explicit instructions to think outside the box did not help. That this advice is useless when actually trying to solve a problem involving a real box should effectively have killed off the much widely disseminated—and therefore, much more dangerous—metaphor that out-of-the-box thinking spurs creativity.
After all, with one simple yet brilliant experiment, researchers had proven that the conceptual link between thinking outside the box and creativity was a myth.
But you will find numerous situations where a creative breakthrough is staring you in the face. They are much more common than you probably think.The Moments That Make Us Who We Are.
Life provides turning points of many kinds, but the most powerful of all may be character-revealing moments. + free ebooks online. Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day? Go to: Distributed Proofreaders. Robert Henri () was an American artist, teacher, and an outspoken advocate of modernism in webkandii.com is best known for his leadership of the group of realist painters known as "The Eight," later termed the Ashcan School.
Henri was a devotee of realism and the usage of everyday city life as a . George Wesley Bellows (August 12 or August 19, – January 8, ) was an American realist painter, known for his bold depictions of urban life in New York webkandii.com became, according to the Columbus Museum of Art, "the most acclaimed American artist of his generation".
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Biography. A full-time professional illustrator by the age of 18, the American painter and graphic artist Norman Rockwell produced some of the most famous pictorial images of everyday American life in the 20th century. He became a household name in American art, .