Static graphics can be interpreted as dynamic action. Extension Some graphics provide additional information that is not present in the written text.
Interpreting graphs The majority of graphs published in scientific journals relate two variables. Although many other kinds of graphs exist, knowing how to fully interpret a two-variable graph can not only help anyone decipher the vast majority of graphs in the scientific literature but also offers a starting point for examining more complex graphs.
As an example, imagine trying to identify any long-term trends in the data table that follows of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations taken over several years at Mauna Loa Table 1; click on the excerpt below to see the complete data table.
This is a small portion of a data table containing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations measured at Mauna Loa - click on it to see the full table.
The variables are straightforward — time in months in the top row of the table, years in the far left column of the table, and carbon dioxide CO2 concentrations within the individual table cells.
Yet, it is challenging for most people to make sense of that much numerical information. You would have to look carefully at the entire table to see any trends. But if we take the exact same data and plot it on a graph, this is what it looks like Figure 2: Reading a graph involves the following steps: The x-axis shows the variable of time in units of years, and the y-axis shows the range of the variable of CO2 concentration in units of parts per million ppm.
The dots are individual measurements of concentrations — the numbers shown in Table 1. Thus, the graph is showing us the change in atmospheric CO2 concentrations over time. Describing the data and trends: The line connects consecutive measurements, making it easier to see both the short- and long-term trends within the data.
On the graph, it is easy to see that the concentration of atmospheric CO2 steadily rose over time, from a low of about ppm in to a current level of about ppm. Within that long-term trend, it's also easy to see that there are short-term, annual cycles of about 5 ppm.
On the graph, scientists can derive additional information from the numerical data, such as how fast CO2 concentration is rising. This rate can be determined by calculating the slope of the long-term trend in the numerical data, and seeing this rate on a graph makes it easily apparent.
While a keen observer may have been able to pick out of the table the increase in CO2 concentrations over the five decades provided, it would be difficult for even a highly trained scientist to note the yearly cycling in atmospheric CO2 in the numerical data — a feature elegantly demonstrated in the sawtooth pattern of the line.
Putting data into a visual format is one step in data analysis and interpretationand well-designed graphs can help scientists interpret their data. Interpretation involves explaining why there is a long-term rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations on top of an annual fluctuation, thus moving beyond the graph itself to put the data into context.
Seeing the regular and repeating cycle of about 5 ppm, scientists realized that this fluctuation must be related to natural changes on the planet due to seasonal plant activity. Visual representation of these data also helped scientists to realize that the increase in CO2 concentrations over the five decades shown occurs in parallel with the industrial revolution and thus are almost certainly related to the growing number of human activities that release CO2 IPCC, It is important to note that neither one of these trends the long-term rise or the annual cycling nor the interpretation can be seen in a single measurement or data point.Jul 11, · Both plant cells and animal cells are Eukaryotic cells.
These are cells that contain a well-defined nucleus and in which the other organelles are held together by membranes. What Is an Organelle? An organelle is any specialized structure that is contained within a cell. Organelles perform various functions to keep the cell webkandii.coms: Visuals: Writing about Graphs, Tables and Diagrams) The graph shou,,s that since there has been considerable urban grotuth in all 5 continents presented and that this trend is expected to continue at least until Lesson Life Science – Plant & Animal Cell Functions H.
Turngren, Minnesota Literacy Council, p.1 GED Science Curriculum. Graphical devices that illustrate the relationship between two or more variables using points, lines, or differentiated parts of a whole (e.g., pie graph, line graph, bar graph).
Insets Smaller pictures within or near larger pictures.
In the second row of the table, draw diagrams to show how a sample they help organize cell division in animal cells For Questions 3–5, refer to the Visual Analogy comparing the cell with a factory.
3. In the visual analogy of a cell as a factory, what two functions of the nucleus are. The language needed for writing about visuals such as graphs and tables is quite complex in English. For students taking the IELTS Academic Module, the Writing Task I presents a number of challenges.
University students and others writing reports also often need assistance to be able to describe graphs and diagrams accurately.